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Note: Starred readings are compulsory and must be made prior to the class. The allocation of compulsory readings might be subjected to changes.


Legend:  E=Evidence for discussion; D= Student-run discussion of compulsory readings; PP= student paper/project presentations.

Session 1:  Mind the Gap: The limitations of observational data 

Baldassarri, Delia and María Abascal. 2017. “Field Experiments across the Social Sciences”. Annual Review of Sociology, 43:41–73


Farkas, George, and Keven Vicknair. 1996. "Appropriate Tests of Racial Wage Discrimination Require Controls for Cognitive Skills." American Sociological Review 61:557-660.

Pager, Devah. 2007. “The Use of Field Experiments for Studies of Employment Discrimination: Contributions, Critiques, and Directions for the Future”. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 609 (Janurary):104-133.

Petersen, Trond, and Ishak Saporta. 2004. “The Opportunity Structure for Discrimination”. American Journal of Sociology, 109: 852-901. 

 Phelps ES. 1972. “The statistical theory of racism and sexism”. American Economic Review, 62(4): 659–61.

Session 2: Investigating Discrimination (II)

*Bertrand, Marianne and Sendhil Mullainathan. 2004. “Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination”. American Economic Review 94: 991-1013.

Pager, Devah. 2003. “The Mark of a Criminal Record”. American Journal of Sociology 108:937-75.

Pager, Devah and Shepherd, Hana. 2008. “The Sociology of Discrimination: Racial Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit, and Consumer Markets.” Annual Review of Sociology, 34:1-524.

Weichselbaumer, D. 2017. “Discrimination Against Migrant Job Applicants in Austria: An Experimental Study”. German Economic Review, 18(2), 237-265.

Zschirnt, Eva and Ruedin, D. 2016. “Ethnic Discrimination in Hiring Decisions: A Meta-Analysis of Correspondence Tests 1990-2015”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 42(7): 1115-1134

Session 3: RedEx Seminar: Are Southern European Descendants Discriminated against in Norther European Markets? 

*Polavieja, J. and Fischer-Souan, M. 2021. “‘PIGS’ Go To Market: Are People of Southern European Descent Discriminated Against in Northern European Job Markets?” typescript.

Session 4: Race and Ethnicity (I)

Note this session includes a debate between Winant and Wimmer. It is recommended to read Wimmer (2013) first, Winant (2015) second, and Wimmer (2015) last.


*Wimmer, A. 2013. Ethnic Boundary Making: Institutions Power, Networks. Princeton University Press

*Wimmer, A. 2015. “Race-centrism: a critique and a research agenda”. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38:13, 2186-2205, DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2015.1058510


*Winant, H. 2015. “Race, ethnicity and social science”. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38:13, 2176-2185, DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2015.1058514


Session 5: Race and Ethnicity (I)

*Bonilla-Silva, E. 1997. "Rethinking Racism: Towards a Structural Interpretation". American Sociological Review, 62(3):465-480.

Bonilla-Silva, E. 1999. “The Essential Social Fact of Race”. American Sociological Review, 64(6): 899-906.

*Loveman, Mara. 1999. “Is "Race" Essential?” American Sociological Review, 64(6): 891-898.

*Roth, W. D. 2016. “The multiple dimensions of race”. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39:8, 1310-1338, DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2016.1140793

Winant, H. 2017.“Is Racism Global?“. Journal of World-Systems Research, 23(2): 505-510.


See also statement on "race" of the American Anthropological Associaction:


Session 6: Race & Status

*Freeman, Jonathan B. Andrew M. Penner, Aliya Saperstein, Matthias Scheutz, Nalini Ambady. Looking the Part: Social Status Cues Shape Race Perception. PLoS ONE, 2011; 6 (9): e25107 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025107

*Williams, Keelah E. G., Oliver Sng, and Steven L. Neuberg. 2016. “Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes” PNAS, 113(2): 310–315.

*Zhang, N. et al. 2019 “Prosocial Behaviour in Interethnic Encounters: Evidence from a Field Experiment with High- and Low-Status Immigrants”. European Sociological Review, 2019, Vol. 35, No. 4, 582–597.


Session 7: Skin Tone Stratification (D, PP)

Hersch, Joni. 2008. “Profiling the New Immigrant Worker: The Effects of Skin Color and Height”. Journal of Labor Economics 26: 345-386.


*Maddox, K. B. 2004. “Perspectives on Racial Phenotypicality Bias”. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(4):388-401.

*Monk, E. (2014). “Skin Tone Stratification among Black Americans, 2001–2003”. Social Forces, 92(4):1313–1337.


*Monk, E. 2015. “The Consequences of "Race and Color" in Brazil”.: Social Problems, 63(3): 413-430


Monk, E. 2015. “The Cost of Color: Skin Color, Discrimination, and Health among African-Americans”. American Journal of Sociology, 121(2): 396–444.


Painter Matthew A., Malcolm D. Holmes, Jenna Bateman. 2016. “Skin Tone, Race/Ethnicity, and Wealth Inequality among New Immigrants”. Social Forces, 94(3): 1153–1185.


Telles, E., Flores, R.  and Urrea-Giraldo, F. 2015. “Pigmentocracies: Skin Color, Census Ethnoracial Categories and Educational Inequality in Eight Latin American Countries” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 40: 39-58 

Session 8: The Roots of Prejudice and Anti-Immigrant Sentiments (D, PP)
*Finseraas, Henning, Andreas Kotsadam, 2017. “Does personal contact with ethnic minorities affect anti-immigrant sentiments? Evidence from a field experiment”. European Journal of Political Research, Vol 56(3), 703-722, DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12199.


Fiske, S.T. (1998). “Stereotyping, Prejudice and Discrimination” In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske and G. Lindzey

*Polavieja, Javier G. 2016. “Labour-Market Competition, Recession and Anti-Immigrant Sentiments in Europe: Occupational and Environmental Drivers of Competitive Threat". Socio-Economic Review, 14(3): 395-417.

*Sides, John, and Jack Citrin. 2007. “European opinion about immigration: the role of identities, interests, and information”. British Journal of Political Science 37:477-504. 

Sniderman, Paul M., Louk Hagendoorn, and Markus Prior 2004. “Predisposing factors and situational triggers: exclusionary reaction to immigrant minorities”. American Political Science Review, 98 (1):35-49.

Session 9: Muslim Minorities in Europe (D, PP)

*Di Stasio, V., Lancee B., Veit S. & Yemane R. 2019. “Muslim by Default or Religious Discrimination? Results from a Set of Harmonized Field Experiments”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, DOI:10.1080/1369183X.2019.1622826.

*Alba, Richard. 2005. "Bright vs. blurred boundaries: Second-generation assimilation and exclusion in France, Germany, and the United States". Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28(1): 20-49.


*Strabac, Z., and Listhaug, O. 2007. “Anti-Muslim Prejudice in Europe: A Multilevel Analysis of Survey Data from 30 Countries”. Social Science Research , 37: 268-286.


Voas, David and Fleischmann, Fenella. 2012. “Islam Moves West: Religious Change in the First and Second Generations”. Annual Review of Sociology, 38 (1): 525-545.


Session 10:  Multiculturalism and assimilation: The Debate (D, PP)

*Koopmans, Ruud. 2010. “Trade-Offs between Equality and Difference: Immigrant Integration, Multiculturalism and the Welfare State in Cross-National Perspective”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36, 1 - 26


*Nandi, Alita and Platt, Lucinda. 2015. “Patterns of Minority and Majority Identification in A Multicultural Society”. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(15): 2615-2634. 


*Maliepaard, Gijsberts M, Lubbers M. 2012. “Reaching the Limits of Secularization? Turkish- and Moroccan- Dutch Muslims in the Netherlands 1998–2006”. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 51(2):359–367.


Platt, Lucinda. 2014. “Is there assimilation in minority groups' national, ethnic and religious identity?”. Journal of Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37: 46-70.

Wimmer, A. and Soehl, T. (2014). “Blocked Acculturation: Cultural Heterodoxy among Europe’s immigrants”. American Journal of Sociology, 120(1):146-186.


Session 11: The role of culture & cultural assimilation 

*Fernández, R. 2011. “Does Culture Matter?” In Handbook of Social Economics, edited by J. Benhabib, M. O. Jackson, and A. Bisin, 481–510. Amsterdam: NorthHolland.

He, Qian, Gerber, Theodore P. 2019. “Origin-Country Culture, Migration Sequencing, and Female Employment: Variations among Immigrant Women in the United States”. International Migration Review: 1-29.


*Finseraas, H., and A. Kotsadam. 2017. “Ancestry Culture and Female Employment – An Analysis Using Second Generation Siblings.” European Sociological Review 33(3):382–92


*Polavieja, J. G. 2015. “2015. “Capturing Culture: A New Method to Estimate Exogenous Cultural Effects using Migrant Populations”. American Sociological Review, 80(1): 166-191

Polavieja, J. 2017. "Culture as a Random Treatment: A Reply to Chou". American Sociological Review, 82(2): 444-450.

A 2m clip on Polavieja (ASR 2015) (in Spanish)

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